COVID 19 Pathology

By Dr Deepu Changappa Cheriamane

On 9 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 was the cause of COVID-19 (2019-nCoV was the name of the virus at that time). It is one of the two strains of the SARS-CoV species known to cause human disease, the other being the original severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), the cause of SARS. It is a member of the Betacoronavirus genus, one of the genera of the Coronaviridae family of viruses. Coronaviruses are enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses that are found in humans, mammals and birds. These viruses are responsible for pulmonary, hepatic, CNS, and intestinal disease. 
As with many human infections, SARS-CoV-2 is zoonotic. The closest animal coronavirus by genetic sequence is a bat coronavirus, and this is the likely ultimate origin of the virus. The disease can also be transmitted by snakes.
Six coronaviruses are known to cause human disease. Two are zoonoses: the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), both of which may sometimes be fatal. The remaining four viruses all cause the common cold. 

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