Pleuropulmonary Manifestations
Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Pleuritis with or without effusion
    • Rheumatoid effusion
    • Cholesterol effusion
  • Necrobiotic nodules
  • Caplan's syndrome (rheumatoid pneumoconiosis)
  • Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis
  • Pulmonary arteritis and pulmonary hypertension
  • Bronchiolitis obliterans with or without organizing pneumonia
  • Apical fibro-bullous disease
  • Upper airway dysfunction from cricoarytenoid arthritis
  • Interstitial changes from drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (e.g., methotrexate, gold, penicillamine)
Systemic Lupus Erythematosis
  • Pleuritis with insignificant effusion
  • Acute lupus pneumonitis
  • Alveolar hemorrhage
  • Chronic interstitial disease (sub-roentgenographic)
  • Pulmonary vascular disease: vasculitis, pulmonary embolism
  • Bronchiolitis obliterans
  • Atelectasis
  • Diaphragm dysfunction
Progressive Systemic Sclerosis
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Interstitial fibrosis
  • Aspiration pneumonitis
  • Increased frequency of lung tumors (Alveolar cell carcinoma)
Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis
  • Interstitial fibrosis
  • Bronchiolitis obliterans
  • Aspiration pneumonitis
Sjogren's Syndrome
  • Pleuritis
  • Interstitial fibrosis
  • Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis
  • Pulmonary vasculitis and hypertension
  • Desiccation of tracheobronchial tree
  • Pulmonary lymphoma and pseudolymphoa
Ankylosing Spondylitis

  • Interstitial fibrosis (upper lobes)
  • Thoracic cage immobility

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