Showing posts with label AZYGOUS LOBE. Show all posts
Showing posts with label AZYGOUS LOBE. Show all posts


By Dr Deepu
The lungs are normally divided into five lobes by three main fissures .
 Occasionally, invaginations of the visceral pleura create accessory fissures that separate individual bronchopulmonary segments into accessory lobes .
 An azygos lobe is found in approximately 0.4% of patients . In contrast to other accessory lobes, the azygos lobe does not correspond to a distinct anatomical bronchopulmonary segment .

It forms during embryogenesis when the precursor of the azygos vein fails to migrate to its medial position in the mediastinum, where it normally arches over the origin of the right upper lobe bronchus.
 This gives rise to the following characteristics, which are visible on a standard chest x-ray

: the laterally displaced azygos vein lies between folds of parietal pleura, also referred to as the mesoazygos, where it assumes a characteristic teardrop shape ; the mesoazygos indents the right upper lobe, thereby creating the accessory (azygos) fissure, which is similar in shape to an inverted comma; the fissure delineates the azygos lobe, located superomedially ; laterally, the pleural folds of the mesoazygos separate before reaching the chest wall, resulting in a radiopaque triangular area ; and medially, the tracheobronchial angle appears empty .

 An azygos lobe may be confused with a pathological air space such as a bulla or abscess . In addition, the abnormally located azygos vein may be mistaken for a pulmonary nodule, while a consolidated azygos lobe may be confused with a mass . An understanding of the pathogenesis and characteristic x-ray features of the azygos lobe will enable an accurate diagnosis in most cases .
 If the x-ray findings are equivocal, computed tomography will be diagnostic .